Blog

Thought Leadership

Piloting Airline Cyber Security with AI

Default blog imageDefault blog imageDefault blog imageDefault blog imageDefault blog imageDefault blog image
09
Oct 2022
09
Oct 2022
The airline industry has long operated with thin profit margins and high security and safety standards. With cyber threats threatening downtime that many of these organizations cannot afford, Darktrace's Tony Jarvis suggests that they turn to preventative AI-driven technologies which can harden defenses before attackers make the first move.

A Thin Margin for Error

The airline industry has long been known for its thin profit margins, and the high costs of unexpected downtime. 2010’s Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland and the resulting six-day airspace ban across Europe cost airlines $1.7 billion, just a taste of the impact that would come ten years later as a result of the pandemic. The industry collectively amassed more than $180 billion in debt in 2020, and some predictions suggest that by 2024 the industry's debt could exceed its revenue.

Given the impact that further sustained downtime could have on an already ailing industry, airlines are having to take cyber security seriously. Last year’s Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack in the US led to a six-day shutdown of pipeline operations – the same length of time that flights were grounded by the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. But while the industry hasn’t seen a volcanic eruption on that scale in over twelve years, ransomware attacks are striking airlines weekly. Just this year a ransomware attack on SpiceJet left hundreds of passengers stranded at airports across India, despite being contained relatively quickly.  

Fraud, Fines and Safety Risks

It isn’t just ransomware which is concerning many in the industry. Data breaches remain one of the biggest threats to airlines, organizations which are responsible at any one time for the personal and financial information of millions of customers. In 2019, British Airways had the data of 380,000 customers stolen, including addresses, birth dates and credit card information, and was fined £20 million (reduced from £183 million due in part to the impact of the pandemic) by the UK’s Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO), the largest issued fine in the ICO’s history. The European airline EasyJet is currently facing a class-action suit seeking £18 billion in damages after failing to properly disclose the loss of 2,208 customers’ credit-card information in 2020. 

Airlines are also losing out to card and air mile fraud, with thousands of fraudulent loyalty program accounts being sold on the dark web, as well as the usual roster of attacks including phishing and insider threats which affect businesses of every size and industry. The airlines themselves are not being complacent. In a 2021 report by SITA, 100% of airlines surveyed named cyber security as a key investment for the next three years. Making sure that those investments count will be the next challenge.

There are few industries for which safety and security measures are so important, and while no impact on flight safety as a result of a cyber-attack has yet been reported, agencies like Eurocontrol are already urging caution. Airlines and airports should look at smarter ways to proactively protect their digital environments. 

As attacks grow faster and less predictable, organizations are increasingly turning to preventative AI security measures. For airlines, which operate with broad attack surfaces and plenty of valuable data, using tools which can identify and monitor every asset and potential attack path in an organization and take the necessary steps to secure them is the best way to stay ahead of attackers.

Securing Airspace, Securing Cyberspace

As a recreational pilot myself, I understand the extent of the safety measures that go into every flight: the flight plans, pre-flight checks and all of the long-practiced, deep-embedded knowledge. It is this comprehensive and meticulous approach which ought to be reflected in organizations’ cyber security efforts – whether they be airlines, airports or any other type of business. The parallels between the processes of flying and running a digital organization safely give us a helpful way to understand what proper, AI-driven cyber security can do for any organization, airlines included.

Cleared for Takeoff 

For the pilot, safety measures start long before they’re sat in the cockpit. Flight planning, which includes planning heading and bearing, taking things like elevation, terrain, and weather conditions into consideration, must be completed in addition to plenty of pre-flight checks. The checklist the pilot works through when performing a walk around and pre-flight inspection will often be ordered so that they work in a circle around the perimeter of the whole plane. These checks prevent potential threats, covering everything from water having mixed with the fuel to birds making nests inside the engine cowling.

Darktrace PREVENT, released in July 2022, serves a similar purpose. The AI autonomously identifies and tests every single user and asset that makes up a business in order to spot potential vulnerabilities and harden defenses where necessary. Like a walk around, PREVENT/Attack Surface Management examines the full range of external assets for threats. Then, by identifying and testing potential attack pathways and mitigating against weak points and worst-case scenarios, PREVENT/End-to-End takes steps to win the fight before an attack has been launched. 

Maintaining Good Visibility

When you’re piloting a plane, first and foremost you need a way to detect key variables. Your fundamental flight instruments in the cockpit are known as the six pack:

1. Airspeed Indicator
2. Attitude Indicator or Artificial Horizon 
3. Altimeter
4. Turn Coordinator 
5. Heading Indicator
6. Vertical Speed Indicator

These six instruments provide the critical information needed by any pilot to safely fly the aircraft. While additional instruments are required to conduct flights In low-visibility or ‘Instrument Meteorological Conditions’ (IMC) conditions, these will be essential when getting out of dangerous situations such as inadvertently flying into cloud.

Understanding an environment and adapting to its changes is also fundamental to Darktrace DETECT: an AI-driven technology which focuses on building a comprehensive knowledge of an organization’s environment in order to spot threats the moment they appear. Because it understands what is ‘normal’ for the organization, Darktrace DETECT is able to correlate multiple subtle anomalies in order to expose emerging attacks – even those which have never been seen before. Like those essential flight instruments, DETECT offers visibility into otherwise obscure regions of the environment, and ensures that any potential problems are spotted as early as possible. 

Mayday, Mayday

In aviation and security, moving quickly once a threat has been detected is critical. When an engine stalls at 3,000 feet above ground level, you don’t have time to get the training books out and start figuring out what to do. Pilots are taught to “always have an out” and be ready to use it.

In aviation, an effective response relies for the most part on the knowledge and quick reactions of the pilot, but in cyber security, AI is making response faster and more effective than ever. Darktrace RESPOND uses DETECT’s contextual understanding in order to take the optimum action to mitigate a threat. Adaptability of this response is crucial: a single cyber-attack can come in any number of configurations, and Darktrace RESPOND is able to tailor its actions appropriately. Attacks today move too fast for human teams to be expected to keep up, but with AI taking actions at machine speed organizations can remain protected. 

Always Learning

One of the best pieces of advice a pilot can take is to always be learning. Every flight is an opportunity to learn something new and become a better and safer pilot.

Darktrace DETECT, RESPOND, and PREVENT are all driven by Self-Learning AI, a technology which not only builds but continuously evolves its understanding of each business. This means that as an organization grows, adding more users, assets, or applications, its Darktrace coverage grows too, using each new data point to enhance its understanding and the accuracy of its actions and detections. Darktrace’s separate technologies also learn from each other. Each of the three product families continuously feeds data into the others, helping to enhance their capabilities and improving their ability to keep organizations secured against threats. 

As cyber-attacks proliferate and increase in sophistication, they will continue to target organizations like airlines, which have large attack surfaces and copious amounts of customer data, and which cannot afford to weather sustained downtime. But with AI offering effective, proactive measures and clear-sky visibility, security teams can be confident in their ability to fight back.

INSIDE THE SOC
Darktrace cyber analysts are world-class experts in threat intelligence, threat hunting and incident response, and provide 24/7 SOC support to thousands of Darktrace customers around the globe. Inside the SOC is exclusively authored by these experts, providing analysis of cyber incidents and threat trends, based on real-world experience in the field.
AUTHOR
ABOUT ThE AUTHOR
Tony Jarvis
Director of Enterprise Security, Asia Pacific and Japan

Tony Jarvis is Director of Enterprise Security, Asia Pacific and Japan, at Darktrace. Tony is a seasoned cyber security strategist who has advised Fortune 500 companies around the world on best practice for managing cyber risk. He has counselled governments, major banks and multinational companies, and his comments on cyber security and the rising threat to critical national infrastructure have been reported in local and international media including CNBC, Channel News Asia and The Straits Times. Before joining Darktrace, Tony previously served as CTO at Check Point and held senior advisory positions at FireEye, Standard Chartered Bank and Telstra. Tony holds a BA in Information Systems from the University of Melbourne.

Book a 1-1 meeting with one of our experts
share this article
USE CASES
No items found.
PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT
No items found.
COre coverage
No items found.

More in this series

No items found.

Blog

Email

Looking Beyond Secure Email Gateways with the Latest Innovations to Darktrace/Email

Default blog imageDefault blog image
09
Apr 2024

Organizations Should Demand More from their Email Security

In response to a more intricate threat landscape, organizations should view email security as a critical component of their defense-in-depth strategy, rather than defending the inbox alone with a traditional Secure Email Gateway (SEG). Organizations need more than a traditional gateway – that doubles, instead of replaces, the capabilities provided by native security vendor – and require an equally granular degree of analysis across all messaging, including inbound, outbound, and lateral mail, plus Teams messages.  

Darktrace/Email is the industry’s most advanced cloud email security, powered by Self-Learning AI. It combines AI techniques to exceed the accuracy and efficiency of leading security solutions, and is the only security built to elevate, not duplicate, native email security.  

With its largest update ever, Darktrace/Email introduces the following innovations, finally allowing security teams to look beyond secure email gateways with autonomous AI:

  • AI-augmented data loss prevention to stop the entire spectrum of outbound mail threats
  • an easy way to deploy DMARC quickly with AI
  • major enhancements to streamline SOC workflows and increase the detection of sophisticated phishing links
  • expansion of Darktrace’s leading AI prevention to lateral mail, account compromise and Microsoft Teams

What’s New with Darktrace/Email  

Data Loss Prevention  

Block the entire spectrum of outbound mail threats with advanced data loss prevention that builds on tags in native email to stop unknown, accidental, and malicious data loss

Darktrace understands normal at individual user, group and organization level with a proven AI that detects abnormal user behavior and dynamic content changes. Using this understanding, Darktrace/Email actions outbound emails to stop unknown, accidental and malicious data loss.  

Traditional DLP solutions only take into account classified data, which relies on the manual input of labelling each data piece, or creating rules to catch pattern matches that try to stop data of certain types leaving the organization. But in today’s world of constantly changing data, regular expression and fingerprinting detection are no longer enough.

  • Human error – Because it understands normal for every user, Darktrace/Email can recognize cases of misdirected emails. Even if the data is correctly labelled or insensitive, Darktrace recognizes when the context in which it is being sent could be a case of data loss and warns the user.  
  • Unclassified data – Whereas traditional DLP solutions can only take action on classified data, Darktrace analyzes the range of data that is either pending labels or can’t be labeled with typical capabilities due to its understanding of the content and context of every email.  
  • Insider threat – If a malicious actor has compromised an account, data exfiltration may still be attempted on encrypted, intellectual property, or other forms of unlabelled data to avoid detection. Darktrace analyses user behaviour to catch cases of unusual data exfiltration from individual accounts.

And classification efforts already in place aren’t wasted – Darktrace/Email extends Microsoft Purview policies and sensitivity labels to avoid duplicate workflows for the security team, combining the best of both approaches to ensure organizations maintain control and visibility over their data.

End User and Security Workflows

Achieve more than 60% improvement in the quality of end-user phishing reports and detection of sophisticated malicious weblinks1

Darktrace/Email improves end-user reporting from the ground up to save security team resource. Employees will always be on the front line of email security – while other solutions assume that end-user reporting is automatically of poor quality, Darktrace prioritizes improving users’ security awareness to increase the quality of end-user reporting from day one.  

Users are empowered to assess and report suspicious activity with contextual banners and Cyber AI Analyst generated narratives for potentially suspicious emails, resulting in 60% fewer benign emails reported.  

Out of the higher-quality emails that end up being reported, the next step is to reduce the amount of emails that reach the SOC. Darktrace/Email’s Mailbox Security Assistant automates their triage with secondary analysis combining additional behavioral signals – using x20 more metrics than previously – with advanced link analysis to detect 70% more sophisticated malicious phishing links.2 This directly alleviates the burden of manual triage for security analysts.

For the emails that are received by the SOC, Darktrace/Email uses automation to reduce time spent investigating per incident. With live inbox view, security teams gain access to a centralized platform that combines intuitive search capabilities, Cyber AI Analyst reports, and mobile application access. Analysts can take remediation actions from within Darktrace/Email, eliminating console hopping and accelerating incident response.

Darktrace takes a user-focused and business-centric approach to email security, in contrast to the attack-centric rules and signatures approach of secure email gateways

Microsoft Teams

Detect threats within your Teams environment such as account compromise, phishing, malware and data loss

Around 83% of Fortune 500 companies rely on Microsoft Office products and services, particularly Teams and SharePoint.3

Darktrace now leverages the same behavioral AI techniques for Microsoft customers across 365 and Teams, allowing organizations to detect threats and signals of account compromise within their Teams environment including social engineering, malware and data loss.  

The primary use case for Microsoft Teams protection is as a potential entry vector. While messaging has traditionally been internal only, as organizations open up it is becoming an entry vector which needs to be treated with the same level of caution as email. That’s why we’re bringing our proven AI approach to Microsoft Teams, that understands the user behind the message.  

Anomalous messaging behavior is also a highly relevant indicator of whether a user has been compromised. Unlike other solutions that analyze Microsoft Teams content which focus on payloads, Darktrace goes beyond basic link and sandbox analysis and looks at actual user behavior from both a content and context perspective. This linguistic understanding isn’t bound by the requirement to match a signature to a malicious payload, rather it looks at the context in which the message has been delivered. From this analysis, Darktrace can spot the early symptoms of account compromise such as early-stage social engineering before a payload is delivered.

Lateral Mail Analysis

Detect and respond to internal mailflow with multi-layered AI to prevent account takeover, lateral phishing and data leaks

The industry’s most robust account takeover protection now prevents lateral mail account compromise. Darktrace has always looked at internal mail to inform inbound and outbound decisions, but will now elevate suspicious lateral mail behaviour using the same AI techniques for inbound, outbound and Teams analysis.

Darktrace integrates signals from across the entire mailflow and communication patterns to determine symptoms of account compromise, now including lateral mailflow

Unlike other solutions which only analyze payloads, Darktrace analyzes a whole range of signals to catch lateral movement before a payload is delivered. Contributing yet another layer to the AI behavioral profile for each user, security teams can now use signals from lateral mail to spot the early symptoms of account takeover and take autonomous actions to prevent further compromise.

DMARC

Gain in-depth visibility and control of 3rd parties using your domain with an industry-first AI-assisted DMARC

Darktrace has created the easiest path to brand protection and compliance with the new Darktrace/DMARC. This new capability continuously stops spoofing and phishing from the enterprise domain, while automatically enhancing email security and reducing the attack surface.

Darktrace/DMARC helps to upskill businesses by providing step by step guidance and automated record suggestions provide a clear, efficient road to enforcement. It allows organizations to quickly achieve compliance with requirements from Google, Yahoo, and others, to ensure that their emails are reaching mailboxes.  

Meanwhile, Darktrace/DMARC helps to reduce the overall attack surface by providing visibility over shadow-IT and third-party vendors sending on behalf of an organization’s brand, while informing recipients when emails from their domains are sent from un-authenticated DMARC source.

Darktrace/DMARC integrates with the wider Darktrace product platform, sharing insights to help further secure your business across Email Attack Path and Attack Surface management.

Conclusion

To learn more about the new innovations to Darktrace/Email download the solution brief here.

All of the new updates to Darktrace/Email sit within the new Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform, creating a feedback loop between email security and the rest of the digital estate for better protection. Click to read more about the Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform or to hear about the latest innovations to Darktrace/OT, the most comprehensive prevention, detection, and response solution purpose built for critical infrastructures.  

Learn about the intersection of cyber and AI by downloading the State of AI Cyber Security 2024 report to discover global findings that may surprise you, insights from security leaders, and recommendations for addressing today’s top challenges that you may face, too.

References

[1] Internal Darktrace Research

[2] Internal Darktrace Research

[3] Essential Microsoft Office Statistics in 2024

Continue reading
About the author
Carlos Gray
Product Manager

Blog

No items found.

Managing Risk Beyond CVE Scores With the Latest Innovations to Darktrace/OT

Default blog imageDefault blog image
09
Apr 2024

Identifying Cyber Risk in Industrial Organizations

Compromised OT devices in ICS and SCADA environments pose significant physical risks, even endangering lives. However, identifying CVEs in the multitude of complex OT devices is labor-intensive and time-consuming, draining valuable resources.

Even after identifying a vulnerability, implementing a patch presents its own challenges limited maintenance windows and the need for uninterrupted operations strain IT and OT teams often leading organizations to prioritize availability over security leading vulnerabilities remaining unresolved for over 5 years on average. (1)

Darktrace’s New Innovation

Darktrace is an industry leader in cybersecurity with 10+ years of experience securing OT environments where we take a fundamentally different approach using Self-Learning AI to enhance threat detection and response.

Continuing to combat the expanding threat landscape, Darktrace is excited to announce new capabilities that enable a contextualized and proactive approach to managing cyber risk at industrial organizations.

Today we launch an innovation to our OT Cybersecurity solution, Darktrace/OT, that will add a layer of proactivity, enabling a comprehensive approach to risk management. This industry leading innovation for Darktrace/OT moves beyond CVE scores to redefine vulnerability management for critical infrastructure, tackling the full breadth of risks not limited by traditional controls.  

Darktrace/OT is the only OT security solution with comprehensive Risk Management which includes:

  • Contextualized risk analysis unique to your organization
  • The most realistic evaluation and prioritization of OT risk
  • Effectively mitigate risk across your OT infrastructure, with and without patching.
  • The only OT security solution that evaluates your defenses against Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) Groups.

The most comprehensive prevention, detection, and response solution purpose built for Critical Infrastructures

Darktrace’s Self-Learning AI technology is a cutting-edge innovation that implements real time prevention, detection, response, and recovery for operational technologies and enables a fundamental shift from the traditional approach to cyber defense by learning a ‘pattern of life’ for every network, device, and user.  

Rather than relying on knowledge of past attacks, AI technology learns what is ‘normal’ for its environment, discovering previously unknown threats by detecting subtle shifts in behavior. Through identifying these unexpected anomalies, security teams can investigate novel attacks, discover blind spots, have live time visibility across all their physical and digital assets, and reduce time to detect, respond to, and triage security events.  

  • Achieve greater visibility of OT and IT devices across all levels of the Purdue Model.
  • The industry's only OT security to scale threat detection and response, with a 92% time saving from triage to recovery.  
  • The only OT focused security solution to provide bespoke Risk Management.

To learn more about how Darktrace/OT approaches unique use cases for industrial organizations visit the Darktrace/OT Webpage or join us LIVE at a city near you.

Read more below to discover how new innovations to Darktrace/OT are bringing a new, contextualized approach to Risk Management for Industrial organizations.

For more information on the entire Darktrace/OT Solution read our solution brief here.

Darktrace/OT and New Risk Management

Risk Identification

Leveraging the visibility of Darktrace/OT which identifies individual systems throughout the Purdue Model and the relationship between them, Darktrace/OT identifies high-risk CVEs and presents potential attack routes that go beyond techniques requiring a known exploit, such as misuse of legitimate services. Each attack path will have a mathematical evaluation of difficulty and impact from initial access to the high value objectives.  

Together this gives comprehensive coverage over your real and potential risks from both an attacker and known vulnerability perspectives. OT attack paths as seen here even leverage insights between the industrial and corporate communications to reveal ways threat actors may take advantage of IT-OT convergence. This revelation of imperceptible risks fills gaps in traditional risk analysis like remote access and insider threats.

Figure 1: Darktrace/OT visualizing the most critical attack paths at an organization
Figure 1: Darktrace/OT visualizing the most critical attack paths at an organization
Figure 2: A specific Attack Path identified by Darktrace/OT

Risk Prioritization

Darktrace/OT prioritizes remediations and mitigations based on difficulty and damage to your unique organization, using the established Attack Paths.

We ascertain the priorities that apply to your organization beyond pure theoretical damage answering questions like:

  • How difficult is a particular vulnerability to exploit considering the steps an attacker would require to reach it?
  • And, how significant would the impact be if it was exploited within this particular network?

This expanded approach to risk prioritization has a much more comprehensive evaluation of your organization's unique risk than has ever been possible before. Traditional approaches of ranking only known vulnerabilities with isolated scores using CVSS and exploitability metrics, often leaves gaps in IT-OT risks and is blind to legitimate service exploitation.

Figure 3: Darktrace/OT leverages its contextual understand of the organization’s network to prioritize remediation that will have the positive impact on the risk score

Darktrace provides mitigation strategies associated with each identified risk and the relevant impact it has on your overall risk posture, across all MITRE ATT&CK techniques.

What sets Darktrace apart is our ability to contextualize these mitigations within the broader business. When patching vulnerabilities directly isn’t possible, Darktrace identifies alternative actions that harden attack paths leading to critical assets. Hardening the surrounding attack path increases the difficulty and therefore reduces the likelihood and impact of a breach.

That means unpatched vulnerabilities and vulnerable devices aren’t left unprotected. This also has an added bonus, those hardening techniques work for all devices in that network segment, so apply one change, secure many.

Figure 4: Darktrace prioritizes mitigation reducing accessibility of vulnerability and the overall risk score when patches aren’t available

Communicate Board Level Risk with APT Threat Mapping

Darktrace/OT bridges theory and practice as the only security solution that maps MITRE techniques, frequently used by APT Groups, onto AI-assessed critical Attack Paths. This unique solution provides unparalleled insights including sector and location intelligence, possible operating platforms, common techniques, exploited CVEs, and the number of potential devices affected in your environment, supporting holistic risk assessment and proactive defense measures.

Ultimately, this becomes a power dashboard to communicate board level risk, using both metric based evidence and industry standard threat mapping.

Conclusion

Darktrace/OT is part of the Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform a native, holistic, AI-driven platform built on over ten years of AI research. It helps security teams shift to more a productive mode, finding the known and the unknown attacks and transforming the SOC with the various Darktrace products to drive efficiency gains. It does this across the whole incident lifecycle to lower risk, reduce time spent on active incidents, and drive return on investment.

Discover more about Darktrace's ever-strengthening platform with the upcoming changes coming to our Darktrace/Email product and other launch day blogs.

Join Darktrace LIVE half-day event to understand the reality versus the hype surrounding AI and how to achieve cyber resilience.

Learn about the intersection of cyber and AI by downloading the State of AI Cyber Security 2024 report to discover global findings that may surprise you, insights from security leaders, and recommendations for addressing today’s top challenges that you may face, too.  

References

1. https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/ws/portalfiles/portal/313646831/Catch_Me_if_You_Can.pdf

Continue reading
About the author
Mitchell Bezzina
VP, Product and Solutions Marketing
Our ai. Your data.

Elevate your cyber defenses with Darktrace AI

Start your free trial
Darktrace AI protecting a business from cyber threats.